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LED or Light Emitting Diodes: Definitive Basic Guide

Ever seen small bulbs probably in size of a millimeter that we mostly use in decorating our house, shop etc in Christmas, New Year, Diwali or any other occasions? They are LEDs. Though very tiny but they glow brightly in the dark. Some of them just glow constantly, and some of them switch their state On/Off and vice-versa. I hope you have got an idea what we are going to discuss in this article. If not, see the image below for better understanding. Yes, we are going to learn what Light Emitting diodes are, their working and how they are …

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Gunn Diode Explaination

What is a Gunn diode A Gunn Diode is a microwave semiconductor diode designed to work in devices having microwave frequencies. Microwave Frequencies are electromagnetic radiation of tremendously high frequencies (THF), (maximum working frequency up to 3 THz, this depends on the material used in its structure). The most common materials used in their manufacturing process are GaAs (Gallium Arsenide), and GaN (Gallium Nitride). In that process, microwave diodes require a unique environment (from lead due to sensitivity to electromagnetic pulses). The symbol of this diode is as shown below: Gunn diodes have short switching times due to their design. …

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Tunnel Diode And Tunnelling Effect

Every student faces difficulty understanding the concept of Tunneling effect in the tunnel diode. Students are much confused about different types of diodes they encounter in their academics. We have already explained Photodiodes, Zener diode, Schottky Diode, LED etc. Now, we are going to explain about Tunnel diode, working operation, construction, and applications etc. What is a Tunnel Diode? A Tunnel diode is a p-n junction device which exhibits negative resistance. With Negative resistance, we mean “By Increasing the voltage the current through it decreased“. It is also known as Esaki diodes named after Leo Esaki. He received the Nobel Prize …

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Schottky Diode working, construction, characteristics and Applications

Schottky diode is also known as the hot carrier diode is made up of semiconductor-metal junction rather than a p-n semiconductor junction. It is widely used for radio frequency, RF applications as a mixer or detector diode. In our previous articles, we explain about Zener Diode, Light emitting diode, Photodiode etc. In this article, we are going to explain Schottky diode operation, construction and factors etc in detail. It was named after German Physicist Walter H. Schottky, the barrier means the potential energy barrier for the electrons at the junction.  This diode has a low forward voltage drop usually between …

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Photodiode Modes of operation, working principle and Applications

Photodiode is a special kind of diode convert light energy into current or voltage. It can be used to detect the presence or absence of minute quantities of light and can be calibrated very accurate for measurements. In our previous articles, we explain about LED diode, Zener Diode, P-n junction diode etc. Here we are going to explain Photodiode operation, working principle, modes etc in detail. These may be either exposed or packaged with an optical fiber connection or window to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. It may contain in-built lenses, optical filters and frequently uses photo …

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Zener Diode Working, Characteristics and Application as Voltage Regulator

Zener diode is a special kind of diode which permits the flow of current in the forward direction as well as in reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain voltage known as breakdown or Zener voltage. In our previous articles, we explain in detail about diodes, PN junction diode, semiconductors etc. In this article, we are going to explain Zener diode and its applications in detail. It is one of the most demandable electronic component used to generate low power stabilized supply rails from a higher voltage and to provide reference voltages for the circuit. It was named …

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Diode: Types, operation and Symbols [Guide]

Diode is an electronic device conduct current in one direction i.e. either in the forward direction or in the reverse direction. Today’s most commonly used diode is semiconductor diode. In our previous articles, we explain basic theory of semiconductors, P-n junction diode, and P-n junction diode characteristics etc. Here we are going to explain about Diodes and its types. Diode Basics: It is a specialized component with two electrodes i.e. anode and cathode and has high resistance to the flow of the current in one direction & low resistance in the other direction. Diodes can be used as oscillators, rectifiers, signal …

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PN junction Diode Characteristics and Biasing

Pn junction is one of the most important structures in today’s semiconductor technology used in transistors, FET and many types of integrated circuits. In our previous articles, we have seen  p-n junction formation from a p-type and n-type semiconductor and Semiconductor electronics. We have also learned about diffusion current, drift current and depletion region. Here we are going to explain how p-n junction diode characteristics. [Image source] P-n junction diode: To understand the behavior of p-n junction we make it conducting by applying an external voltage over a range of 0v, 5v, 10v and determine how the current passed through …

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Electrical and Electronics Symbols

We all know how much we struggle to read wiring diagrams properly. And I know you are completely at “no fault zone” with this. With many electrical symbols, it is very difficult to remember every one of them and using them while solving a circuit diagram. But there is an easy way to remember them. And believe me when I say its easy. With my graduation in electronics, I have used this trick and was able to solve many circuit diagrams. The trick is: Learn to read electronics symbols. And these symbols are useful also if you are from the …

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Class A Power Amplifier Theory, Efficiency equation, Advantages and Disadvantages

Class A power amplifier is one of the simplest types of power amplifier have high fidelity and totally immune to crossover distortion. In the standard common emitter circuit configuration, class A amplifier uses the switching transistor.  The transistor is always turned ON so that the output current flows for the entire cycle of the input waveform. To control the high load current, class A amplifier may use a single power transistor or a pair of a transistor connected together. In our previous article, we explain power amplifier circuit,  semiconductors, diodes, rectifiers in detail. Here we are going to explain Class A …

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