Hartley Oscillator: Working and Design using Op amp

Hartley oscillator is a LC feedback circuit used to generate high-frequency waveforms or signals into which the oscillation frequency is determined by a tank circuit comprising of two inductors and one capacitor. In our previous article, we explain oscillator circuit and oscillator types in detail. In this article, we are going to explain Hartley oscillator and its circuit in brief. This oscillator was invented by the American engineer Ralph Hartley in 1915 while he was working for the Western Electric company. For producing good quality sine wave signals in the RF range, we preferred this oscillator. Hartley oscillator: As shown in …

Read moreHartley Oscillator: Working and Design using Op amp

Oscillator image

Oscillator: Introduction and Types

An oscillator is an electronic device which provides the source of a repetitive alternating current signal across its output terminal without needing any input because signal generated is usually of constant amplitude. Common signals generated includes clock signals, sound signals produced by video games, electronic beepers and broadcast signals by television and radio transmitters. In our previous article, we explain about oscillator circuit in brief. Have a look at it. Generally, oscillators are characterized according to the frequency generated at their output signal because for stabilization different frequencies are required in different areas. For example: For producing signals in the radio frequency …

Read moreOscillator: Introduction and Types

mosfet diagram

MOSFET Transistor: Easiest Basics, Operation and Types

Transistors are a widely used component in an electrical circuit. We have already discussed FET (Field effect transistors) and JFET (Junction Gate Field-effect transistors) in our previous tutorials. Another most used Transistor is Mosfet. In this tutorial, we will explain its definition, working modes, operation,  and types. What is Mosfet: Definition and explanation According to Wikipedia The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.  It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device Let’s understand this definition of Mosfet …

Read moreMOSFET Transistor: Easiest Basics, Operation and Types

p type 2d material image

First stable P type 2D semiconductor material: Tin Oxide

Great magic done by the Ashutosh Tiwari and his team, have discovered first stable p-type 2D semiconductor material at the University of Utah that opens the door for much speedier smartphones and computers. The semiconductor made of the element tin and oxygen, tin monoxide ( SnO) is a layer of 2D material only one atom thick, allows electrical charges like electrons to move through it at a faster speed than conventional 3D material such as silicon, germanium etc. [Photo:Dan Hixson/University of Utah College of Engineering] Researchers in the field of engineering materials have discovered that new types of 2D material such …

Read moreFirst stable P type 2D semiconductor material: Tin Oxide

Junction Field Effect Transistor image

JFET Transistor: Operation and Characteristics

JFET is the first form of field effect transistor to be developed can be used as a voltage controlled resistance or as an electronically controlled switch. In our previous articles, we explain in detail about Field Effect Transistor operation and comparison between Jfet & Mosfet. In this, we are going to explain you in detail about Jfet operation and biasing. Junction Field Effect Transistor: JFET consist of the channel of semiconducting material through which a current flows. Jfet’s are of two types; one is n-channel JFET and another is p-channel JFET. Generally, n-channel JFET are more preferred than p-channel JFET because …

Read moreJFET Transistor: Operation and Characteristics

Comparison between JFET and MOSFET image

Comparison Between JFET and MOSFET

Fet is categorized into Jfet and Mosfet, both are quite similar in their operating principles and electrical properties. In our previous articles, we explain Fet transistors and its operation, pn junction diode characteristics in detail. Here we are going to explain you in detail about JFET , Mosfet and difference between them. JFET( Junction Field Effect Transistor): JFET is a voltage controlled semiconductor device used as amplifiers, electronically controlled switches and voltage controlled resistors in many applications. Junction field effect transistor has no p-n junctions but has a high resistivity semiconductor material forming a channel of either n-type or p-type silicon …

Read moreComparison Between JFET and MOSFET

Field Effect Transistor: Operation and Types

FET or field-effect transistor is a three-terminal unipolar semiconductor device. It is used for amplification of weak signals. This type of transistor basically uses an electric field to control the shape and hence the electrical conductivity of a channel of one type of charge carrier in a semiconductor material. FET has various similar characteristics to those of their bipolar transistor counterparts i.e. robust, cheap, high efficiency and instant operation and can be used in various electronic circuit applications. In our previous article, we explain the difference between BJT and FET, Semiconductors electronics Theory. Here we are going to explain FET operation …

Read moreField Effect Transistor: Operation and Types

pn junction diode charactristic apparatus image

PN junction Diode Characteristics and Biasing

Pn junction is one of the most important structures in today’s semiconductor technology used in transistors, FET and many types of integrated circuits. In our previous articles, we have seen  p-n junction formation from a p-type and n-type semiconductor and Semiconductor electronics. We have also learned about diffusion current, drift current and depletion region. Here we are going to explain how p-n junction diode characteristics. [Image source] P-n junction diode: To understand the behavior of p-n junction we make it conducting by applying an external voltage over a range of 0v, 5v, 10v and determine how the current passed through …

Read morePN junction Diode Characteristics and Biasing

formation of pn junction image

Pn Junction : Basic theory

Pn junctions are formed by joining two different type of semiconductor material i.e. p-type semiconductor on one side and n-type semiconductor on another side. In this article, we are going to explain you about p-n juenction formation, phenomena of p-n junction formation and basic equations. Have a look at it. It is discovered by the American physicist Russell Ohl at Bell laboratories. In p-type semiconductor holes are majority carriers and electrons are minority carriers while in n-type semiconductor electrons are majority carriers and holes are minority carriers i.e. one end has the excess of electrons and other has the excess of …

Read morePn Junction : Basic theory

semiconductor material image

Semiconductor Basics and Energy Band Theory

Semiconductors are the backbone of electronics components. They are used more than conductors and find applications in every circuit. Be it a most commonly used multimeter or a device using rectifiers, transistors, voltage regulators, or anything in its circuit. You also have heard about them in physics and chemistry in your academics.  But you don’t know what are they actually? How are these materials defined and what are their properties and uses? Don’t be sad. Below we are giving every basic detail of these materials that too in easy to get language. Let’s start our chapter now. Before knowing about …

Read moreSemiconductor Basics and Energy Band Theory