“The management of all operations and procedures in an industry in order to protect its employees and assets by minimizing hazards, risks, accidents, and near misses” called the Industrial Safety.
With the technological advancement in manufacturing, the danger of human life is increasing day by day. The thousand of industrial accidents every year caused the realization of the importance of industrial safety. In order to avoid accidents, employees must be aware of industrial safety principles & danger areas of that industry. Accidents take place unexpectedly causing injury & loss of men, machines, materials of that industry.
Because of safety first all industrial personnel must be trained enough about safety aspects of man, machines, and material & other infrastructure facilities for avoiding minor or major accidents. Safety is the first requirement and every industrial employee must learn safety measures even before he starts working on a machine or equipment.
The safety movement was initially started in 1912 with the first cooperative safety congress and the organization of the national safety council of the USA.
Objectives of Industrial Safety
In this Article You will learn:
- Industrial safety is needed to check all the possible chances of accidents for preventing loss of life and permanent disability of any industrial employee, any damage to machine and material.
- It is needed to eliminate accidents causing work stoppage and production loss.
- It is needed to reduce workman’s compensation, insurance rate and all the cost of accidents.
- It is needed to achieve better morale among industrial employees.
- It is needed to increase production means to a higher standard of living.
- It is needed to prevent accidents in the industry by reducing any hazards.
Planning of Industrial Safety
In industries, the no. of fire hazards, accidents, industrial disasters may be reduced through careful safety planning. All those unfortunate events can be avoided by effective planning for safety. Some important considerations for industrial safety are the following:
- Proper Plant Layout
- Proper Fire Prevention system
- Health & Hygiene
- Proper Safety Training
- Proper Alarms And warning systems
- Appropriate sensors and safety gears for employees
- Sufficient lighting in the work area as well as the pathways
- Cleanliness & dryness of shop floor
- Proper pressure gauges and other safety equipment
- Electrically insulation
- Proper signboards for safety instructions
COMMON SOURCES OF ACCIDENTS
Revolving, rotating and moving parts of machines may be the sources of danger and require guarding for protection against accidents and Many such major sources are following.
- Low light machine operation areas.
- Revolving parts like pullies, flywheels, wheels, fans, gears, gear trains, gear wheels, etc.
- Intermittent feed mechanisms like tool feed of planer, table feed of a shaper, ram feed of power presses and similar other applications.
- Revolving shafts, spindles, bars, mandrels, chucks, followers and tools like drills, taps, reamers, milling cutters, and boring tool, etc.
- Rotating worms and spirals enclosed in casings, such as in conveyors and revolving cutting tools, like milling cutters, circular saw blade, saw band, circular shears, and grinding wheels, etc.
- Reciprocating tools and dies of power presses, spring hammer, drop hammers, and reciprocating presses, knives and saw blade such bow saw, shearing and perforating machines and the cutting and trimming machine and power hacksaws, etc.
- Electrical wires, switches, motors & control panels.
- Oily & wet and dirty shop floor.
- Moving weights, such as in hydraulic accumulator or in slotting machines for counter-balance.
- Nips between racks and pinions of machine parts
- Nips between reciprocating parts and fixed components, such as between shaper table and the fixture mounted on it or a planer table and table reversing stops, etc.
- Nips between crank handle for machine controls and fixed parts.
- Projecting sharp edge or nips of belt and chain drives; via a belt, pulleys, chains sprockets, and belt fasteners, etc.
- Cutting edges of endless band cutting machines, woodworking, and log cutting metal find stone-cutting band saws, cloth-cutting band knives, etc.
- Pressure containers like pneumatic cylinders, boilers, etc.
ACCIDENTS AND THEIR TYPES
There are various types of common accidents as follows:
Near Accident: Accidents with no damage or injury is called near-accidents.
Trivial: An accident with very little damage is called trivial.
Minor Accident: It is an accident with damage and injury more than trivial.
Serious Accident: An accident with heavy damage and a lot of injuries is called Serious Accidents.
Fatal: It is an accident with very heavy damage. There may be a loss of lives also.
3 CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
The accidents may take place due to the three following causes:
- Human Causes
- Mechanical Causes
- Environmental Causes
Very common human causes for accidents are as follows:
- Operating or working at an unsafe speed.
- Working on unsafe or dangerous equipment or machinery.
- Operating machines without knowledge, without safety precautions or without safety devices.
- Working for a long duration of work.
- Use of improper tools.
- Working with mental worries, ignorance, carelessness, nervousness, dreaming, etc.
Very common mechanical causes of accidents are as follows:
- Use of unguarded or improper guarded machines or equipment.
- The use of old, poorly maintained or unsafe equipment may result in accidents.
- Improper material handling system and improper plant layout.
- Not using safety devices such as helmets, goggles, gloves, masks, etc.
Very common mechanical causes of accidents are as follows:
- Working at improper temperature and humidity causes fatigue to the workers for chances of accidents.
- he presence of dust fumes and smoke in the working area.
- Poor housekeeping, congestion, blocked exits, bad plant layout, etc.
- Inadequate illumination.
- Improper ventilation may also lead to industrial accidents.
- Lack of cleanliness.